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This course is meant to give a comfortable and smooth start to your Maths basics, as needed for Physics .
Topics explained :-
1) Graphs and equations that make the graph: get comfortable with graphs of various shapes. learn what is slope and how to find it, irrespective of how complex the graph is.
Basic Types of graphs :- a) straight line graph, b) exponential curves, c) Hyperbolic curves.
Learn what is Maxima and Minima points for curves.
2) Trigonometry :- a) sine, cos and tan. b) example:- sine of a continuously varying angle :- this is applied in physics to a wave equation
3) Integration - what exactly is the physical meaning of Integration.
4) Differentiation - what exactly is the physical meaning of Differentiation . See in terms of a graph, and how does it help us to handle complex graphs made by equations.
1) SI system of Units. Learn the 7 major units corresponding to the 7 Fundamental Quantities in the physical world.
d) Electric Current
2) Conceptual Difference between Mass and Weight .
3) Parallax error in measurements.
4) Errors in measurements
5) Vernier Caliper, Least Count, and how it is used to measure diameter, width, and depth in a practical machined part.
6) Solved Problems
This course gives you interesting images and animations to explain clearly a number of things :-
1) Displacement versus Distance: what's the difference
2) Types of Motion - a) along a Horizontal / Vertical plane , a straight line motion , b) along a plane, but a zigzag motion, c) circular motion, d) Rolling Motion (as in a tyre) , e) Projectile motion.
3) Equations of Motion
4) Projectile Motion or Parabolic Motion :- two animations show parabolic motion :-
a) Aircraft dropping a food packet for people
b) Basketball throw by a player.
In case (a) , the vertical and horizontal velocity vectors are shown changing dynamically at every instant, to help with the concept of Resultant Vector changing dynamically with time, and therefore the Resultant Flight path of the object . The difference between "g" in vertical direction versus no acceleration in horizontal direction is explained, and is the key to understanding projectile motion.
5) solved problems
1) Force as a vector . See Archimedes principle and Forces acting on a ball submerged inside water
2) Gravitational Forces , such as between any two Masses. Bid case studies are heavenly bodies in space. Example- Earth and Sun, Moon and Earth.
3) Electrostatic or Coulomb forces between electrically charged particles or bodies
4) Normal force and friction force
5) Rope Tension force
6) Spring force
7) Nuclear forces - these act between Protons and Neutrons. Holds a Nucleus of an Atom together.
The other types of forces are also shown in 3D images and solid models . Example: Hydrostatic forces acting on a body submerged in water.
8) Difference between Classical physics and Quantum physics
This course gives a strong foundation to clearly understand Newton's 3 Laws of Motion , and to apply them in practical problems.
1) 1st Law of motion
2) Inertial and Non-Inertial Frames of Reference
3) 2nd Law of motion
4) 3rd law of motion.
5) Block sliding on an Inclined Plane - apply 1st and 2nd Law
6) Normal Reaction - horizontal plane
7) Concept of Action-Reaction pairs
8) Normal Reaction - Inclined plane
9) 3rd law application- Contact forces on a horizontal plane
10) Equation derivation of forces - Block moving on Inclined plane
11) Solved problems
Difference between Interial and Non-Interial Frames
Understanding the concept of "FRAMES of Reference" such as Inertial and Non-Inertial frames is usually difficult but very important. This abstract topic is also covered under the chapter "Rotation" or "Rotational Mechanics".
1) Introduction to friction: Static friction, Kinetic friction and side-effects of friction
2) Friction example explained: how it acts when a person is walking
3) Block sliding on a horizontal plane
4) Thermal energy loss due to friction, an irreversible process
5) Friction force and co-efficient of static friction
6) Friction force and co-efficient of Kinetic friction (same as Dynamic friction)
7) Friction case:- Block placed on top of another Block.
8) Friction for a block moving on an Inclined Plane
9) The 4 Laws of Friction
10) Contact forces - for a horizontal plane
11) Frictional forces at atomic level
12) Table of co-efficients of friction numbers for various materials in contact : both Static and Kinetic friction values
13) Rolling friction
14) Friction in liquids/fluids: Viscosity
15) Solved problems
This course makes circular motion easy to grasp and conceptualize.
1) get a feel for circular motion
2) The earth's rotation - a huge circular motion
3) Banking of Tracks - A Car turning around a bend in the road
4) Inertial Frame of Reference - inertial and rotating frames of reference
5) Centripetal force versus Centrifugal force (for this, need to understand Frames of reference)
6) Normal reactions - banked track and un-banked track : resolving Normal Reaction for a car on road
7) Centripetal force: where does it come from?
8) Solved problems
This course explains clearly the concept of Work and Energy :-
1) Get a feel for Work and Energy : animation of a Turbine wheel in a hydraulic dam
2) Work-Energy Theorem: Work and kinetic energy
3) Equation for Work done :- case : animation of a robot pulling a block over a horizontal plane.
4) Work done when Force is constant
5) Work done by Spring : varying force as spring expands or compresses
6) Conservative and Non-conservative forces
7) Potential Energy concept for a Spring
8) Mass-Energy equivalence
9) Solved Problems
1) Get a feel for the concept of Momentum and Collisions - practical example of a ball dropped on the floor and rebounding.
2) Center of Mass : what is it
3) Uniform Mass Density
4) Equation derivation of center of mass for a Uniform Straight Rod
5) Linear Momentum and Conservation of Momentum
6) Collisions types : a) Elastic/perfectly elastic, b) Inelastic
7) Elastic Collision: animation of a ball hitting another ball , storing and release of potential energy
8) Collisions -special cases- a) heavy object hits a very light object, b) light object hits a stationary Heavy object
9) Perfectly Inelastic collisions: animation of ball hitting another ball
10) Partly Elastic and Partly Inelastic Collisions
11) Moving Block colliding with a stationary Spring : animation and explanation
12) Co-efficient of Restitution
13) Elastic collision in more than one dimension: animation :- ball falling into spherical cup
14) Solved Problems
Rotation of bodies is usually a complex subject. This course makes things easy using animations and better explanations for the student.
1) Get a feel for Rotational motion : animation of turbine wheel rotating when water falls on it.
2) Rotation about an axis : the importance of knowing the axis of rotation
3) Angular velocity and angular acceleration. Its comparison with equations for Linear velocity and linear acceleration. Examples with pulleys are shown.
4) The main equations of Rotational Kinematics
5) The main equations of Rotational Dynamics : Force, Torque, and radius of action
6) Moment of Inertia: concept and derivation
7) Moment of Inertia: for a rectangular plate: see animation
8) Torque, Angular Acceleration, and Moment of Inertia: see animation
9) Leaning of Bike into a turn
10) Angular Momentum
11) vector directions for Angular Momentum: Right hand Thumb Rule
12) Angular momentum, Moment of Inertia, and Torque: relationship between all these three
13) Conservation of Angular Momentum
14) Kinetic Energy of a Rotating Mass
15) Work Done and Power in Rotational motion
16) Theorems of Moment of Inertia: a) perpendicular axis theorem, b) parallel axis theorem
17) Rolling concept: rotation + translation
18) Rolling with braking
19) Solved Problems
This course gives a clear explanation about the gravitational forces and its impact on the universe. Gravitation is a weak force but a 'long-distance force", it can act over distances of light-years. Animations and images help you to understand the earth’s orbital revolution (rotation) around the sun, and the earth's rotation about its own axis, and other examples of gravitation.
1) Gravitational force is always a force of Attraction, never Repulsion
2) Gravitational pull or attractive force between masses, and gravitational constant.
3) Moon and its role in attracting meteors
4) Universal Law of Gravitation
5) Difference between big 'G' and small 'g'
6) Gravity on Moon and other planets
7) Gravitational Potential
8) Gravitational Field
9) Kepler's Laws of Planetary motion
10) Escape Velocity, and equation derivation
- value and effect of Latitude on escape velocity
- effect of Earth's rotation on escape velocity
11) Black Holes in outer space
12) Gravitational Waves
Several real-life things like springs, pendulums, even waves follow Simple Harmonic Motion. In this course, you can see repeatedly in slow motion, our Animations and Video explanations to get the concepts and equations clear.
1) Introduction: what is Simple Harmonic Motion
Read about Restoring Force and its equation.
2) Displacement, Velocity, and acceleration : the mysterious connection between Uniform Circular Motion and Simple harmonic Motion
3) Simple Pendulum and its equations
4) Simple harmonic motion: Spring and Mass System
5) SHM : case of a single spring connecting two blocks oscillating on a flat Horizontal Plane
6) Damped Harmonic Motion concept : wave damping
7) Damped Oscillations : Equations -- Amplitude reduction with time
8) Solved problems
This course makes it much easier to understand and remember Fluid Mechanics. Following topics are covered:
1) What is Static pressure, How it varies with depth when a body is immersed inside a liquid.
2) Pascal's Law
3) A Hydraulic Lift: applying and understanding Pascal's Law in real life use
4) Barometer and Atmospheric pressure
5) Manometer and Gas Pressure
6) Archimedes principle
7) Fluid flowing through a pipe: Reynolds number, Lamniar Flow and Turbulent flow
8) Equation of Continuity of Flow
9) Bernoulli's Equation and its derivation
10) Venturi Tube: measuring velocity of flow in a tube.
This course explains a material's innate properties like Elasticity, Strength, stress, strain etc.
Following topics are covered:
1) Introduction to Elasticity
4) Hooke's Law and Young's Modulus of Elasticity
5) Longitudinal stress versus strain graph
6) Work Done and Potential Energy (Elastic Potential energy equation derivation)
7) Practical Experiment to find Young's Modulus
8) Surface Tension in a liquid : adhesion, inter-molecular cohesion, potential energy
> Height of liquid column - equation derivation
9) Surface Tension: case of steel needle floating on water: Equation derivation
10) Parallax Errors in readings due to surface tension
11) Contact Angle: concept and examples > a) water in glass tube, b) mercury in glass tube
12) Cohesion versus Adhesion and Potential Energy for a liquid in a tube
13) Adhesion forces explanation of Contact Angle for cases : a) water in glass tube, b) mercury in glass tube, c) mercury in Copper tube, d) water on paraffin Wax flat plate, e) water in a Silver vessel, f) water on a Lotus Leaf.
14) Capillary tube
15) Capillary action in nature: example of a flower
16) Equation derivation: Height of Capillary in a capillary tube
17) Viscosity : an introduction
18) Velocity gradient concept
19) Co-efficient of viscosity
20) Dimensions of co-efficient of viscosity
21) Bernoulli's Principle: liquid flow
22) Stoke's law and equation
23) Terminal Velocity for object moving through a fluid
24) Stokes method: Practical Experiment to measure co-efficient of viscosity
25) Reynolds number
This course explains about waves and wave equations. Animations show the wave moving which makes it so much easier to understand Wave Theory. Grasp easily the basics such as amplitude, frequency, velocity. A Sonometer and basic principle of a Laboratory experiment is shown, with equation.
1) Feel the wave : an introduction to understanding Circular Motion extending to SHM and wave formation
2) Wave Pulse on a string
3) Sine wave travelling on a string : equations
4) Wave Velocity for a wave travelling along a string in a Longitudinal direction: equation
5) Standing waves: case of string fixed at both ends : equations
6) Failure of bridges and structures due to Standing waves
7) Standing waves: case of string fixed at ONE ends : equations
8) Practical Experiment: Sonometer Apparatus
> The 3 Laws of Trasnverse Vibration of strings
9) Solved problems
Sound waves are both Longitudinal and Transverse , and different from Light waves which are Transverse waves. Learn about sound velocity, amplitude, frequency , pitch . Animations are included to show the sound wave moving .
Following topics are covered:
1) Get a feel for sound waves
2) String Vibrations :
a) Longitudinal vibrations
b) Transverse vibrations
3) Speed of Sound in Solids
4) Speed of Sound in a Gas : Newton's equation and Laplace's Correction
5) Sound: its main defining aspects : a) Pitch and Frequency, b) Intensity and Loudness, c) Quality
6) Standing Waves and Air Columns : equations
a) Pipe closed at one end
b) Pipe open at both ends
8) Doppler Effect and example /cases:-
a) Train moving, person is stationary
b) Train stationary, person moving towards the train
This course explains about light and how it was proved in Young's Double Slit experiment that light must have wave properties.
1) Nature of Light – is it a wave or particle, or both? This is still not decided in the scientific world.
2) More about light waves as Electromagnetic waves, introduction to the Special Theory of Relativity
3) Young's Double-Hole experiment
4) Young's Double Slit experiment
5) Conceptual Difference between Interference and Diffraction
6) Interference due to Thin Films
7) Fresnel's Biprism experiment - Refraction, Interference
> equation derivation
8) Coherent versus Incoherent waves
9) Diffraction of light
10) Practical Experiment : Fraunhofer Diffraction with Circular Hole.
This course shows animations and images to describe the reflection and refraction of light in Mirrors and Lenses.
Following topics are explained in crystal clear fashion to remove doubts and confusions :-
1) Get a feel for Reflections and Refractions : animation of a mirage in a desert
2) Prisms , difference between the words 'Refraction' and 'Dispersion' of light
3) Refraction through a Prism
4) Refraction through a Convex Lens : Ray diagrams
5) Equations for Convex Lens
6) Refraction through a Concave Lens : ray diagrams
7) Reflection from a plane surface or mirror
8) Reflection from a Convex Mirror : Ray diagrams
9) Reflection from a Concave Mirror : Ray diagrams
10) Solved problems
This course makes it really easy to understand Optical instruments.
Summary of topics covered:-
1) Simple Microscope
2) Magnification , Ray Diagram
3) Compound Microscope : animation of movements
> Ray Diagrams : how to draw them
4) Magnification in a Compound Microscope
5) Telescopes and types of telescopes
6) Astronomical Telescopes : 3 types of Astronomical Telescopes
> Ray Diagrams for the three types of Astronomical telescopes
7) Terrestrial Telescopes : Ray diagram
8) Astronomical telescopes: Magnification, Light-gathering ability, and Resolving Power
> Difference between 'Resolving Power' and 'magnification'
> Equation for Resolving Power
9) Terrestrial telescopes : magnification, Light-gathering ability, and Resolving Power
> equation for Resolving Power
10) Solved problems.
This course explains about Dispersive Power of prism materials.
1) Dispersion of white light: concept
2) Dispersive Power
3) Optical Spectrometer
4) Rainbow - an big example of dispersion in nature.
This course explains the great significance of the Speed of light, and how scientists found amazing experimental methods to measure this highest speed in the universe. There is no speed or velocity possible in the Universe higher than the speed of light.
View our animations that show you how the light waves move from source to the very end.
1) The speed of light (or velocity of light)
2) Fizeau method of measurement of speed of light (in the year 1849)
3) Michelson method of measurement of speed of light
Also included is a video about a calculation of Speed of Light mentioned in The Rig Veda, an extremely ancient Indian sacred Text, said to be more than 7000 years old.
This course explains about the light and other radiation, the brightness /luminosity.
1) Get a feel for the words 'Total Radiant Flux' : what is it?
2) Luminosity, Relative Luminosity
3) Light spectrum: Luminosity versus Wavelengths of the seven colours
4) Luminous Efficiency
5) Luminous Intensity
7) Inverse Square Law
8) The Photometer , working principle and equations.
This course explains the basics of temperature and Heat- more appropriately to be called Thermal Heat Transfer, another kind of energy.
Topics covered are :
1) Get a feel for Heat (Thermal Energy) versus Temperature
2) Zeroeth Law of Thermodynamics
3) The Temperature Scale and Thermometers
4) Centigrade unit of temperature measurement
5) Farenheit unit of temperature measurement
6) Conversion - Farenheit to Centigrade
7) Ideal Gas Temperature Scale
8) Constant Volume Gas Thermometer
9) Thermal Expansion
This course explains in detail about behaviour of molecules in a gas. Animations and images are included to simulate in slow motion, the motions of molecules inside a gas. The understanding of collisions of molecules against walls of a container helps in understanding gas pressure being a result of many such collisions.
Topics covered are:
1) Kinetic Theory of Gases : it's purpose and assumptions behind it
2) What is an Ideal Gas ? - definition
3) Assumptions behind the Kinetic Theory
4) Pressure and RMS speed : for an ideal gas
5) Kinetic Theory: interpretation of temperature concept, Equations for KE and Temperature in terms of RMS speed
6) Brownian Motion
7) Vapor and Critical Temperature of a gas , Isotherms
8) Evaporation and Kinetic Energy of molecules
9) Dew Point :- Air temperature, and Saturation Vapor Pressure
This course has animations and detailed video explanations to explain heat transfer in a simple visual way.
1) Heat as a form of energy
2) Unit of Heat
3) Basic principle of Calorimetry
4) Specific Heat and Molar Heat Capacity
5) Practical Experiment- Apparatus to find Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice
6) Apparatus to find Latent Heat of Vaporization of Water
7) Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
8) Searle's Cone Apparatus to find the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
This course is so fundamental to the working of our Universe. We have made for you some amazing animations to help you imagine the expansion and compression of a gas with a piston inside a chamber....one of the many things needed to grasp thermodynamics...
The topics covered are:
1) 1st Law of Thermodynamics
2) Work Done by a Gas
3) Isobaric , Isothermal and Adiabatic expansion : equation derivation
4) Heat Engines, equation and efficiency
5) Petrol engine
6) Diesel engine
7) 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
9) Carnot's Theorem and Carnot Engine
10) Efficiency of Carnot Engine cycle
This course describes the specific heat at constant pressure and at constant volume.
Solved problems and test questions are given at the end.
Example image of gas molecules internal energy (animation provided inside the course) :
This course describes the types of heat transfer : Conduction, Convection, radiation. .
Solved problems and test questions are given at the end.
This subject is difficult usually. This course starts with an image and animation to show electric charges, and goes on to the concept of electric field strength, and electric potential. Just like gravitation, wherever there is a kind of force, there will be energy, so electric potential energy is necessary to understand.
1. Electric charge, units
2. Coulomb’s Law
3. Electric field
4. Lines of electric force
5. Electric Potential energy
6. Electric potential
7. Relation between electric field and potential
8. Electric dipole
9. Electric field due to dipole
10. Torque on a dipole kept in an electric field.
11. Conductors, Insulators and Semi-conductors.
12. Electric field inside a conductor.
A sample image is given below , for a charged sheet :-
This is one of the difficult(and hated) topics. But students have to be helped to get on top of it. This course makes it easier. The images/videosstart from scratch and go on to explain a Gaussian surface and how it can be used practically.
1. Flux of electric field through another surface
2. Gauss’s Law
3. Flux at a point outside a closed surface
4. Applying Gauss’s Law to find equation for Electric Field in various situations :- a) charged conductor, b) charged sphere, c) long wire/cylinder, d) plane sheet of charge. e) outside a charged plane conducting sheet.
5. Comparison: electric field of a charged sphere , with that of a point charge at centre.
6. Electric potential energy of a charged solid sphere.
7. Electric potential energy of a charged spherical SHELL.
Sample image of Gaussian surface wrapped around an electric field:-
This is a ‘must do’ course for getting a good hang of electronics and electrical . This course includes interesting animations to explain capacitors , what they are , how they work, and a basic DC circuit. (you can find more on AC electrical circuits fitted with capacitor , in a subsequent course - chapter 39.) Following topics are covered:
1. Capacitor types, use of a dielectric, and Capacitance.
2. Capacitor in a simple circuit with a DC battery.Working of a switch.
3. Charging and discharge graphs.
4. Capacitor in a AC circuit.
5. Force between plates of a capacitor.
6. Energy stored in a capacitor.
7. Dielectric materials and constant ‘K’.
8. Van de Graff Generator
Sample image ofa parallel plate type capacitor in a DC circuit:-
This course includes very important things like Ohm’s law and Kirchoff’s Laws for circuits. Interesting animations help to get a feel of resistances, series and parallel circuits, and circuits with junctions .A section on capacitors charging and discharging, is included here too.
1. Current and current density
2. Ohm’s law
3. Resistivity, and effect of temperature.
4. Battery and emf concept.
5. Electrical Energy
6. Kirchoff’s Laws
7. Resistors, series and parallel circuits.
8. Grouping of batteries.
9. Wheatstone bridge.
10. Ammeter and Voltmeter.
11. Stretched wire potentiometer.
12. Capacitors - charging and discharging.
Sample image of a DC circuit with battery and 2 resistors in parallel :-
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This chapter talks about the Thermal and Chemical Effects of Electric Current.
1. Joule’s Laws. 2. Practical: Experiment to verify Joule’s Law.3. Seebeck effect.4. Thermoelectric series, current flow in cold and hot junctions.5. Thermocouples.6. Peltier effect.7. Thomson effect.8. Electrolysis, electrolytic cell.9. Faraday’s laws of electrolysis.10. Practical: Experiment to verify Faraday’s Laws.11. Faraday’s laws and ionic theory.12. Faraday constant.13. Voltameter. 14. Primary and secondary cells.15. Lead acid cell.
Solved problems and test questions are given at the end.
Visualising the magnetic lines of force and the field helps in understanding the concept. Images/animationsof charged particles moving in a magnetic field make it enjoyable and less stressful. User-friendly explanationsare givenalong with animations. Following topics are covered:
1. Magnetic field.2. Relation between electric and magnetic fields3. Motion of charged particle in a ‘uniform’ magnetic field.4. Magnetic force on a current carrying wire.5. Torque on a wire loop having current flow.
Solved problems and test questions are given at the end. Sample image ofa bar magnet’s field :-
This course is very important . The course includes visual images and animations of magnetic fields setup around a conductor carrying a current flow. User-friendly explanationsare givenalong with animations. Following topics are covered:
1. Biot-Savart law2. Magnetic field for a straight wire with current flowing in it.3. Force of attraction/repulsion between 2 parallel wires having current flow.4. Magnetic field for a circular wire with current flowing in it.5. Ampere’s Law.6. Magnetic field at a point outside a straight wire with current.7. Solenoid and its magnetic field.
Solved problems and test questions are given at the end. Sample image ofa solenoid’s magnetic field :-
This course has some deep concepts, which are normally not very obvious. A number of 3D visual images and animations help to grasp the difficult conceptual part quite easily.Following topics are covered:
1. Magnetic field lines are closed curves (unlike electric fields)2. A bar magnet is equivalent to a solenoid with small currents flowing.3. Torque on a bar magnet kept in a magnetic field.4. Magnetic scalar potential.5. Earth’s magnetism. The earth’s magnetic North and South poles.6. Practical: using Dip Circle apparatus to find dip.7. Practical: Tangent Galvanometer8. Practical: Moving Coil Galvanometer9. Shunt10. Tangent law of perpendicular fields.11. Practical: Deflectionmagnetometer.12. Practical: Oscillation magnetometer.13. Gauss’s Law for magnetism.
Solved problems and test questions are given at the end. Sample image ofplanet earth’s magnetic axis (North-South):-
This course has some deep concepts on Magnetic Field , which are normally very confusing . Videos with 3D solid model images and animations help to grasp this difficult and abstract topic much more easily and quickly.Following topics are covered:
1. Magnetic Field - basics. Magnetic field 'H', and 'B'. 2. Magnetization 'M' - concept and equation between H, B, and M.3. Paramagnetism, Ferromagnetism, Diamagnetism.4. Magnetising Field Intensity (H) , magnetic field (B), and the difference between them.5. Permeability6. Curie’s Law / Curie temperature.7. Magnetic Hysterisis - concept, and graph of 'M' versus 'H' 8. Soft Iron and steel
It is a very important subject, yet is not easy.This course is about time factor and changes in the interactingelectrical and magnetic fields. 3D Images / Animations are presented along withuser-friendly explanations, to make this course a lot more digestible.Following topics are covered:
1. Faraday’s Law of electromagnetic induction.2. Direction of induced current.3. Lenz’s Law.4. Induced emf.5. Induced electric field.6. Eddy current.7. Self-induction.8. Solenoid :-Self-induction 9. L-R circuit : growth an decay of current.10. Energy stored in an Inductor.11. Mutual Inductance.12. Induction Coil.
This chapter talks about the practical devices that work on Alternating current (AC) and Direct Current (DC).
This course shows how a moving AC waveform looks, and the rotating pointer that defines the equation for the wave. An animation of a rotating turbine wheel in a hydraulic dam as the water falls, helps to understand from where we get the AC upto our homes. Many more animations are presented to give a crystal clear grasp and confidence in the working principle of Generators, Motors, Transformers, as well as AC circuits like R, C, L, CR, LR and LCR circuits.Following topics are covered:
1. AC waveform and equation.2. Fleming’s Left Hand Rule and Right Hand Rule – a recap.3. DC Motor
4. AC Generator : induced current, induced emf.5. Hydraulic dam and Turbine wheel6. Instantaneous and RMS current.7. Simple AC circuits:- R, C, L , CR, LR, and LCR circuits. 8. Choke coil.
9. Transformer.10. Step-up and step-down transformers.11. Why power transmission is done at high voltage.
This course describes light as an electromagnetic wave. This was of course a great scientific discovery, since previously it could not be imagined how light has anything to do with electricity and magnetism.Following topics are covered:
1. Maxwell’s displacement current.2. Maxwell’s Equations :- a collection of the 4 major equations.3. Speed of electromagnetic wave is same as speed of light.4. Wave intensity (energy crossing /area/time).5. Radiation in atmosphere.
Solved problems and test questions are given at the end
This course has images and animations to explain current flow through vacuum or gases at low pressure , such as in cathode ray tubes etc.Following topics are covered: 1. Current through gases at low pressure.2. Cathode rays.3. Thomson’s experiment : to find e/m of electron.4. Millikan Oil-drop experiment- to find ‘e’5. Thermionic emission.6. Diode valve.7. Half-wave rectification.8. Full-wave rectification.9. Triode valve.10. Triode as amplifier.
This course has images and animations to explain the photoelectric effect, which can only be explained by particle nature of light. This keeps the debate going , on light being both a particle and a wave at the same time, depending on the situation.Following topics are covered: 1. Photoelectric effect.:- threshold wavelength.2. Practical: Experiment to study photoelectric effect. Stopping potential.3. Why wave theory is not able to explain photoelectric effect.4. Electrons too behave both as particle and wave.
This course has images and animations to explain the various theories given by scientists about how things look like, inside atoms. An animation is included to show the hydrogen atom, the simplest one.
Following topics are covered: 1. Rutherford model.:- positives and drawbacks.2. Hydrogen spectra: sharply defined wavelengths were found.3. Bohr’s model.4. Allowed energies and orbits of hydrogen atom.5. Ground state and excited state, ionization potential.6. Limitation of Bohr’s model.7. Electron as a wave and a particle both.8. Quantum states.9. Laser.10. Laser applications.
This course has images / animations to explain X-rays.Following topics are covered: 1. What is an X-Ray, how is it produced:- a description of X-Ray tube. A look at X-Rays as Electromagnetic radiationas well as a photon particle.
2. Why do we say "characteristic X-Rays" ? which character?
3. What is meant by Braking Radiation or Brehmsstralung radiation
4. Cut-off wavelengths, and graph of Energy versus wavelength.
5. Soft and Hard X-rays.6. How can we place X-Rays in the overall spectrum of all radiations?
7. Uses of X-rays.
Solved problems are given at the end.
This course has images / animations to explain semiconductors principle and devices.Following topics are covered: 1. Conductor versus semi-conductor2. Energy bands in solids.3. Semiconductor: conduction band and valence band.4. p-type and n-type semiconductors.5. Effect of temperature on conductivity.6. p-n junction7. p-n junction diode, LED, zener diode.8. p-n junction acting as Rectifier.9. Transistor:- n-p-n.10. Transistor as amplifier.11. Logic gates.12. ‘AND’ and ‘OR’ gates using Diodes.13. ‘NOT’ gate using Transistor.14. ‘NAND’ and ‘NOR’ gates.
This course explains nuclear forces.Following topics are covered:1. Nuclear forces.2. Binding energy.3. Radioactive decay.4. Law of radioactive decay. Half-life.5. Medical uses of nuclear radiation.6. Producing Nuclear energy – by fusion or fission.7. A Uranium Nuclear reactor.8. The sun- a place of Fusion .
This course explains the greatest theories of science, discovered by Dr.Albert Einstein.Following topics are covered:
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